Chalgrove Airfield comprises a former World War II airfield, located to the north of Chalgrove Village.
The Airfield has a distinguished history; Opened in 1943, it was used by both the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces during the war, primarily as a combat reconnaissance airfield and was closed in late 1946. For most of time since then, the Airfield has been leased to Martin-Baker Aircraft Co. Ltd, a manufacturer of ejection seats and safety-related equipment for aviation.
Originally the Airfield had three operational runways and a number of hangers and aircraft dispersal pads. These have been gradually reduced and there is now only one CAA licenced runway. The Airfield is still heavily managed and of low ecological value.
In 2016, the Ministry of Defence transferred the airfield to Homes England after it was identified as being surplus to operational requirements following a strategic review of the Defence Estate.
Since the transfer, Homes England has promoted the site as having the potential to deliver a new sustainable 21 st Century market town and it is identified as a preferred allocation in the South Oxfordshire Local Plan